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running tools or compilers

The well known standard way is something like this:

compiler java
:set makeprg=javac
:make %

great: you can cancel compilation by pressing ctrl-c. Bad: You see all lines scroll by (which may even be slow).

There are a lot of additional plugins which can also run compilers.

vim-addon-actions

Implements running compiler for many languages and let's you bind this to a key or the buf write event

syntastic

nice for simple scripts, but runs the interpreter for some languages :(

more

on www.vim.org there are many more solutions